2 edition of effect of pharmacokinetics on the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. found in the catalog.
effect of pharmacokinetics on the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Christine Elaine Thorburn
Written in English
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of East London, Life Sciences, 1997.
The development and spread of a new gene for antibiotic-resistance in a population of bacteria that are exposed to that antibiotic would mean that trait is a(n) _____. adaptation If you examine a natural population of bacteria, it is common to find some antibiotic-sensitive and some antibiotic-resistant strains, even if the population has never. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antibiotics in biofilm infections. Bacteria growing in a biofilm could become 10–1 times more resistant and tolerant to antibiotics.
Since both human and bacterial cells synthesize proteins, due to the slow synthesis of human proteins, it has remained a comfortable task for the development of the selective antibiotics. Only the side effects from toxicity and resistance phenomenon are taken seriously during antibiotic development. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in critically ill acute kidney injury patients. Sepsis is a well‐known risk factor for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI), taking to 70% mortality rate, or a subtherapeutic dose and an increased risk of bacterial resistance, infection by opportunistic germs and mortality.
The effect of pharmacokinetics on the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Thesis (Thesis) Find all citations by this author (default). The development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are affected by several factors. Some factors are bacteria specific, such as the mutation rate, the transmission rate, the biological fitness costs, and the ability to compensate for such costs.
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[Pharmacokinetic effects of antibiotics on the development of bacterial resistance particularly in reference to azithromycin]. [Article in German] Wenisch C(1). Author information: (1)Klinischen Abteilung für Infektionen und Tropenmedizin, Medizinischen Universitätsklinik, Graz.
[email protected] by: 2. Daptomycin exerts its rapid bactericidal effect through insertion into and subsequent depolarisation of the bacterial cell membrane, a mode of action unlike that of any other available antibiotic.
This novel mechanism of action makes the development of cross-resistance between daptomycin and other antibiotic classes by: In this population of acutely ill patients with LRTIs, there was an inverse-effect relationship between the probability of the development of bacterial resistance and the AUC 0–24 /MIC ratio.
This relationship was strongest for Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with ciprofloxacin, but was also found within other organism groups and antibiotic Cited by: Monitoring of total macrolide concentrations in interstitial fluid may provide valuable information regarding antimicrobial effects and the emergence of bacterial resistance for the development of an appropriate pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics-based dosing strategy.
View Full-TextAuthor: Shinji Kobuchi, Teruhiko Kabata, Koki Maeda, Yukako Ito, Toshiyuki Sakaeda. Antibiotics: Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, resistance and multidrug efflux pumps However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of Cited by: The development of antibiotics has contributed greatly to increases in life expectancy and improvements in the quality of life.
However, many decades after the first patients were treated with antibiotics, bacterial infections have again become a threat. The time-kill study investigates the constant effect of drug concentrations of bactericidal or bacteriostatic nature against bacteria over a period of time.
61 The antimicrobial killing kinetics. Empirical, semi-mechanistic and mechanistic models of bacterial dynamics and development of drug resistance in response to drug therapy are discussed. Expert opinion: Both theories and applications of these approaches provide an overall understanding of how the tools can streamline drug development process and help make crucial decisions.
The objective of this work tends to clarify the routes and patterns of administration to treat infections with minimal risks for recurrence and development of resistance: both these targets seem to be better served when the pharmacody- namics and pharmacokinetics of antibiotics are applied in the treatment of pulmonary infec- tions.
In the case of antibiotics, this may then promote treatment failure, or the development of bacterial drug resistance. As such, empirical dose selection and pharmaceutical development must consider these features, with the application of strategies that attempt to counter the unique pharmacokinetic changes encountered in this setting.
T A G Bell, M Slack, S G Harvey, J R Gibson, The effect of trimethoprim-polymyxin B sulphate ophthalmic ointment and chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment on the bacterial flora of the eye when administered to the operated and unoperated eyes of patients undergoing cataract surgery, Eye, /eye, 2, 3, (), ().
Antibiotics are some of our most commonly used drugs. Until recently, little has been known about how to optimize administration of these agents. Unfortunately, the rate of discovery of new antibiotics has been declining, coincident with the explosion in the number of multidrug-resistant organisms in both the community and hospital environments.
Antibiotics offer one of the strongest markers around – we can observe in a dish and in predictive animal models changes in bacterial burden that directly drive our patients’ clinical outcomes. This powerful marker supports a process for predicting efficacious doses in Phase III with high fidelity based on human pharmacokinetics (PK) and.
The emergence of antibiotic resistance poses a critical threat to the efficacy of antibiotic treatments. A resistant bacterial population must originally arise from a single cell that mutates or acquires a resistance gene.
This single cell may, by chance, fail to successfully reproduce before it dies, leading to loss of the nascent resistant lineage. Antibiotics save lives but any time antibiotics are used, they can cause side effects and lead to antibiotic resistance.
Since the s, antibiotics have greatly reduced illness and death from infectious diseases. However, as we use the drugs, germs develop defense strategies against them. This makes the drugs less effective.
A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of.
Abstract. High rates of penicillin-resistant and multi-drug resistant organisms are influencing the empiric treatment of respiratory infections and allowing the new fluoroquinolones (FQs) (e.g., gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) to serve as important treatment alternatives.
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling and simulation has evolved as an important tool for rational drug development and drug use, where developed models characterize both the typical trends in the data and quantify the variability in relationships between dose, concentration, and desired effects and side effects.
In parallel, rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria imposes. Design and development of antibiotics against multidrug resistant bacteria.
Investigate for highly active analogs their (a) stability in human plasma, (b) potential haemolytic effects, (c) pharmacokinetics and potential nephrotoxicity in animals, followed by (d). – However, antibiotics have only marginal effect against some bacterial infections such as uncomplicated sinus infections and ear infections (bacterial otitis) – The body’s immune system can normally take care of these infections without antibiotics • But for some bacterial infections antibiotics are life-saving medicines!.
However, resistance to these antibiotics is certainly likely to occur, the need for the development new antibiotics against those pathogens still remains a high priority.
  Recent drugs in development that target Gram-negative bacteria have focused on re-working existing drugs to target specific microorganisms or specific types of.with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, of them die each year as a result.
Superbugs are bacteria-resistant to one or more antibiotics, and they make it difficult to treat or cure infections that once were easily treated.
The antibiotic has lost its ability to control or kill bacterial growth. Dalbøge et al. found a large variation in the pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin among CF patients that may cause treatment failure in CF patients In addition, subinhibitory doses of antibiotics at the biofilm infection site might increase the risk of antibiotic resistance development due to selection and increased mutagenesis